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First published: 02 July 2023
IQ Real-World Data Working Group co-leads

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record.

Please cite this article as doi:10.1002/cpt.2988.


Since the 21st Century Cures Act was signed into law in 2016, real-world data (RWD) and real-world evidence (RWE) have attracted great interest from the health care ecosystem globally. The potential and capability of RWD/RWE to inform regulatory decisions and clinical drug development have been extensively reviewed and discussed in the literature. However, a comprehensive review of current applications of RWD/RWE in clinical pharmacology, particularly from an industry perspective, is needed to inspire new insights and identify potential future opportunities for clinical pharmacologists to utilize RWD/RWE to address key drug development questions. In this article, we review the RWD/RWE applications relevant to clinical pharmacology based on recent publications from member companies in the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development (IQ) RWD Working Group, and discuss the future direction of RWE utilization from a clinical pharmacology perspective. A comprehensive review of RWD/RWE use cases is provided and discussed in the following categories of application: drug-drug interaction assessments, dose recommendation for patients with organ impairment, pediatric plan development and study design, model-informed drug development (e.g., disease progression modeling), prognostic and predictive biomarkers/factors identification, regulatory decisions support (e.g., label expansion), and synthetic/external control generation for rare diseases. Additionally, we describe and discuss common sources of RWD to help guide appropriate data selection to address questions pertaining to clinical pharmacology in drug development and regulatory decision-making.

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